Background and Context

For over a thousand years, much of the Kathmandu Valley was highly urban, sustainable, and well-managed from an environmental, ecological and infrastructure perspective. Today, largely due to impacts to the already delicate urban environment and fragile resource base from rapid in-migration, compounded by serious damage after the 2015 earthquake, air quality is poor, sanitation is inadequate, safe drinking water is scarce, and adequate employment and affordable housing is in shortage.

Challenges in Cities in Nepal